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Repair cracked walls– Cracking is the deterioration that gets in the development of the construction of the crack or break or wear or corrosion or a decrease in durability or any other manifestation of weakness threaten the structural integrity or threaten the validity of the investment.
The consolidation is a set of procedures carried out in the building to address the cracking and make the building viable to invest safely.
Cracking phenomena in construction
Fault phenomena can be summarized in the construction of the following points :
1 cracks : It is caused by compressive forces applied to the structural element outweigh its ability to resist .
2 fragmentation or spacing: a break gets in a part of the structural element as a result of exposure to compressive forces beyond its ability to resist .
3 decomposition or chemical corrosion : It gets in fragmentation material structural element as a result of interaction with the chemicals found in the middle of the ocean .
4 large deflection in the horizontal elements makes their use is not possible , and it is caused by a lack of harshness of these elements.
5 Milan ( horizontal displacement ) in the construction prevents large investment optimally, and this inclination is caused by soil compaction under the side of the building more than the other because of the heterogeneity of soil incorporation under construction , or because of the irregularity of the stresses applied to the soil incorporation.
6 large vibrations during use , and these vibrations make use of uncomfortable psychologically at least , it can also be troublesome or an impediment to investment .
It is worth mentioning that the building can withstand the phenomena of cracking this to a certain degree , which he does not have to be phenomena of cracking this serious and threaten the safety of construction , but they are indicators of risk requires the study of construction to verify the integrity of construction , and refers to the need to monitor the development of cracks , to strengthen the construction before arrival to a dangerous stage .
Reasons cracked construction
There are four main elements to the construction project are: the idea, design, implementation and usage. In order to be a successful construction project should include these elements: knowledge, experience and care. And if there is a deficiency in any of them, you will not compensate for this lack prevents collapse of excellence in any of the last two years, or both.
Cracked reasons can be classified according to the construction elements of the previous by the following factors:
Reasons caused by an error in the idea: the intended idea is the idea of building construction sentence, which will transfer loads that would be the construction of the point of application to the soil incorporation. You must be this sentence is ergonomically sound and stable. Although the presence of error in this sentence makes an exhibition of construction cracked. It is worth mentioning that the rift caused by this type of error appears quickly in construction, and often appears during the construction and implementation period before investing. Among the most famous errors idea is to use structural syntax is not stable.
Reasons resulting from the error in the design:
Construction design is to put its specificity within the framework of the idea. Getting an error in design may lead to cracking. Among the most famous design errors can be cited lack of appreciation of the proper loads and forces, and poorly designed clips elements or links, and details of the design groups, and the incompatibility of the design with the nature of the soil incorporation, and do not address the abrupt changes in the sections properly, choose View is not enough to break stretch.
Reasons caused by an error in the implementation:
Construction may appear cracked the first period of construction or the first period of the investment, or may appear after a few years of his investment. And accelerates get cracking resulting from the error of implementation, accompanied with other errors, such as an error in design or other. Among the most famous errors of implementation is twice as resistant building materials used, and the poor implementation of links and do not drain properly, and the jaw early pillars of the template and the vibration of concrete after the beginning of hardening, The landing spot for soil incorporation.
Reasons caused by an error in the investment:
There are a lot of mistakes that can be committed by investors, construction , and contribute to cracking , including :
A construction exposing to outweigh the loads loads designed them so much .
B exposing construction chemicals react with the materials used in construction, and make adjustments in construction unstudied affect the safety, and do not perform regular maintenance of the building and leave the water seeps in extensions it work in construction.
Reasons arising from the impact of the passage of time on building materials stressful :
As a result of the vulnerability of the materials used in the construction of large construction stresses for a long period of time, the resistance of these materials to applied stresses them down with the passage of time , as a result of the phenomenon of fatigue that gets these materials . And increase the proportion of low resistance materials parcels with time and with the intensity of the stresses applied to them , in addition to the potential for natural unusual incidents with the passage of time , such as hurricanes , earthquakes, floods and others.
Uncover the reasons for the cracking method
This step is practically the most important step , since it is not feasible to estimate the extent of the need for reform , but if he knew the reason or reasons for cracking , and may be the data are insufficient to determine the cause , so put all the reasons that usually lead to cracks and then delete the reasons is possible one after one , to remain a limited number of reasons taken into account .
There are no specific rules can be followed to uncover the cause or causes of cracking , each case is a matter of self-contained, and should be carried out diagnosis her individually. Can engineer who is the diagnosis following steps : Examine the construction and study well, compared with construction of buildings nearby with buildings similar places other , and inquire of the technical elements that the study on possible reasons for cracked, and analysis of unusual things in the matter at hand , and thinking on the issue towards scientific quiet and patiently, and study the issue in depth .
Method of construction monitor the development of cracks
Before the report of the structural integrity of the building Rift or not , it is necessary to control the phenomena of cracking , and the first step in the process of monitoring is to identify all the cracks (both cracks or fragmentation areas or areas decomposition great marbling , or the great Milan ) , especially with portfolios record the date selection.
Monitors the cracks are as follows :
Recorded in the charts along the slit and vulnerable , direction and place. At the site determines the end of the notch signal X and given a number for each incision.
Put a plaster decal 8 perpendicular to the slit , with the writing of history .
Monitor detects cracks them back several days or several weeks, depending on the speed of evolution of the emergence of the cracks and widen .
Monitors phenomenon of fragmentation using laminated plaster as in the case of monitoring the cracks . It also can control the phenomenon of fragmentation put a layer of brittle materials and are subject to bombing ( one of which is plaster ).
The phenomenon of chemical decomposition of monitors to remove concrete aggregates ( which decomposing material , including Association ) at a particular site so access to sound concrete and education site . Then re-examination after a period of time.
And monitors the phenomenon of great marbling and inclination measurement and monitoring areal .
Cases that require strengthening construction
Can enumerate the following cases :
The existence of the phenomenon of one or more of the cracking phenomena resulting from the construction of any reason whatsoever, and advanced degrees threaten the structural integrity , or make it unusable .
The need to give the construction resistant to horizontal forces , such as earthquakes if not determined .
The need to add one or more floor of the building.
The need to modify the function construction investment , and the resulting increase or modify the loads in the construction sentence .
And must report to the need to strengthen the construction and fault detection and monitor its development and identify its causes , and calendar -resistant construction for exposure to the loads , and the need to strengthen the report and choose the appropriate way .
Building materials used in the construction of buildings
There are many materials used as structural materials in buildings carrier , and can enumerate the following materials including : stone ( natural or synthetic as concrete blocks or bricks – ROM roast with fire ) Steels ( or solid ) Concrete Wood clay sun dryer , aluminum , plastics armed. The substance of the oldest stone materials that were used in abundance in the roofs of residential buildings and other buildings of stone . The concrete material , both regular and armed it is today one of the most widely used materials in the buildings , but it is the most widely used material in the establishment of the buildings in the Arab world and in the world .
Modalities for strengthening stone buildings : it can be done in several ways , including
The spaces between the stones injection Association materials , this method is in use Articles of Association of the type that was used previously, and it can be added ratio of cement and Spaces injected pressure normal or high pressure if necessary .
Add metal guys longitudinal or transverse , and pulling forces are applied in these guys to put pressure on the walls and stones increase interdependence .
Add to reinforced concrete complexes . Be the complexes of concrete additives as strengthening the columns on the sides or ends of the walls openings , in the areas of concentration of stresses in the walls.
Use of T-shirts reinforced concrete walls of poured concrete or ejected .
Use metal walls of the shirts with the guys and injection between them and the walls.
Replacement of damaged stones with new stones , apply this method when the rift or wear the same has happened with stones , and only a limited number of them . However, if the same stones and corrosion may sound got mortar Association , the previous methods be the most appropriate .
Replace worn – out wood-beamed ceilings or corroded .
Strengthening ceilings or concrete cover .
Was shaped steel sections I also used to cover the spaces between the load-bearing stone walls . The spaces between successive sections fills the Cubs brackets , and then the bishop is formed , then later was the use of concrete to fill the void. In the event that awards consisting of metal clips I corrosion and evidence of the need for strengthening , can be done welding steel plates on the lower sections of including compensates for the rusty parts and increases resistance awards for loads applied to them .
Modalities for strengthening steel buildings : This is done by using the following major roads :
Replace the corroded ( rusty ) , plating weak elements , adding new elements , add links , metal construction, or new shear walls of reinforced concrete , which is an alternative to the previous method . And shall at all times ensure the protection of steel surfaces paints appropriate ( Saracon or epoxy or paint oily moisture – proof ).
Modalities for strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings :
Implementation of the metal T-shirts , used this method in particular , to strengthen the columns and awards , are surrounded column or may be at right angles with steel sheets , in order to limit the concrete, and then increase the resistance , with the benefit of resisting steel angles which are placed around pillars or column may be .
The tiles can be used put steel plates , connecting with these steel plates to each other steel cleats or add elements , steel carrier .
Reinforced concrete implementation of T – shirts , used this method as an alternative to the previous method , and used private pictures of concrete columns , where they are molding or extrusion layer of concrete around the perimeter of the column .
Implementation of reinforced concrete shear walls , used this method in the Relay particularly when the desire to strengthen the building against earthquakes horizontal forces and others. Can be added to these walls contribute to the resistance to vertical loads in addition to its contribution to resist horizontal forces .
Implementation of links to connect the metal construction. This method is an alternative to the previous method , to increase the durability of construction to resist horizontal forces , and is adding links metal awards retina .
Add new structural elements of reinforced concrete or steel . This method is in the strengthening of the weak structural elements by adding new elements of reinforced concrete or steel . Awards are for example strengthening adding new columns . The tiles can be strengthened by adding new awards or add new columns and prizes. Obviously, new foundations for the new columns . It should be noted that the implementation of the Relay requires precise details and enough experience to get the desired results.
Modalities for strengthening the foundations of the building:
There are a variety of ways to strengthen the foundations of buildings , and the right ones are chosen in accordance with the construction site and the quality of soil incorporation and the nature of the construction . Most of these methods :
The establishment of soil inventory building pegs peripheral cast of place , or even soil incorporation with suitable material such as cement grout or such chemicals Association , or the implementation of metal pegs minutes and is protected by a layer concrete and insulating material . Wedges are stitches minute micro piles into the soil directly under the foundations of the depths of the occasion, and these wedges are linked with the ancient foundations in order to move the loads .
There are other methods , such as: the implementation of the pegs injection mainstream or Compactors incorporation by regions injection or execution pegs under the foundations of normal concrete or , Period , or can sometimes implement pegs reinforced concrete cast of place , with diameters small does not normally exceed 45 cm, where the intervention mechanism drill small to establish a level of construction , digging pickets with the use of T – shirts metal protection to prevent the collapse of the soil within fossil vacuum . These pickets adjacent to the foundations of the old , then transported these foundations to load through the use of metal items underneath, are protected from rust paints , packaging protection layer of reinforced concrete , and then repainted asphalt .
Factors to choose the appropriate consolidation method
When choosing the appropriate consolidation method , the following factors must be taken into account:
The cost of maintenance and the cost of consolidation so as to ensure an economical solution for strengthening .
If cracks are few and scattered , is up Relay each cracked alone , but if they are many and it generally requires fundamental re – examination of the design.
Must be implemented so as to prevent consolidation of new developments in signs of cracking .
Must attention architect appearance after consolidation and architectural study of jobs so that they remain unrealized investment for the purposes of construction, and take appropriate action to achieve it.
When you add items during the process of consolidation Relay, you must make sure mathematically by the consolidation of the redistribution of loads organisms will not cause increased internal forces on the other elements beyond their resilience.
The introduction can be used in repairing cracks of adobe walls, but with reservations. The strength of the adobe blocks is quite low, any crack will naturally fill up but the strength of the adobe wall it will not add much. Even with the installation of packers, the injectors through which the polymer will be pumped into the crack, may be difficult, because of the loose clay walls, poker can not be firmly fixed, and it can be simply squeezed, in this case, you need to carefully monitor the growth of pressure, stopping the supply of polymer in time to crack. But even in such cases, hastily, it is possible to completely seal the damaged wall.