How to properly charge the vehicle battery
How to properly charge the vehicle battery is not known by many. And after all of this depends heavily on the battery life . Lead acid batteries do not “love” undercharging and overcharging .
Any motorist , especially not burdened with unnecessary money, sooner or later faces the problem of ” shrunken ” battery. How to properly charge the battery ? What to charge ? Whether shooting with a car? Charge to home? How dangerous is this process? These and many more questions will inevitably arise in the head motorist. Let us consider each case in detail and affordable. After all, on how to properly recharge the battery depends on whether we ride or walk the walk.
Recharge with the charger ( charger) . There are several types of devices with both minor and fundamental differences . They have in common one thing – how it works . Alternating current mains are converted to DC . Many chargers have variable speed , changing the voltage ( 12/24 ) , time relays , current , signal lamps or placard . To charge the normal 12 -volt battery terminal voltage , which should provide the charger must be equal to 16-16,5 V . How to choose a battery charger, you can read in this article.
How to properly charge the battery
Where exactly to charge the battery – not very important . Can be charged without removing from the car , at a garage workbench or even at home. But solely observing all safety precautions. Thoroughly clean the battery from dust and dirt, carefully remove the terminals . Examine the battery for leaks , ” boiling over ” mechanical damage.
Wear chemical-resistant gloves , and then (if the design ) plugs . Carefully inspect the contents of each can evaluate the level of the electrolyte in each of them. Pay particular attention to the color and transparency of the electrolyte – it should be completely transparent. This can be done by using a hydrometer bulb . If electrolyte “color” , dark, has a suspension , cereal – is reason to guard !
There will almost certainly be diagnosed permanent or occasional short plates “dirty ” banks . This charges the battery is no good. If everything is in order , proceed to the charge. Mandatory rule – first connect to the battery terminals , and only then turn on the charger itself !
In practice, motorists normally use three charging method . The first – a constant voltage , the second – DC , the third – combined . The impact of these methods on the battery hardly differ .
Charge the battery in the constant voltage mode implies a direct relationship battery level and the value of the charging voltage . For example, when a charging voltage of 14.4 volt battery to provide for two days. If the voltage is raised to 16.5 volts – the battery will be fully ready in a day.
At the beginning of the charging current is sometimes reaches enormous values in the 45-55 amps ! Therefore, all the chargers are initially limiting circuit serving no more than 20-25 amps. In the process of charging the battery , the latter gaining “power” on the terminal voltage gradually tends to equal the voltage charger and charging power , on the contrary , gradually falls to zero . This method of charging is the most safe and gentle , and does not require the presence of a person . Termination charge is marked as a rule, the indicator lights. Full of tension and trouble -charged battery should be 14.4 V.
The battery charge by a constant charging current requires care and presence. For this mode, it is important to charge the amperage required constant adjustment throughout the entire process . For example, a standard battery 60A / h requires a charging current of 6 amps for 20 hours while continuously every hour to monitor and adjust the current.
As soon as the voltage will be 14.4 V, a current must be reduced by half ( 3A), when the 15 – to 1.5 A. The battery is fully charged when , if the charging voltage is stable for 1-2 hours. Please note that the final stage of the charge is accompanied by abundant gas (” boiling ” cans) , so you need to be careful. The disadvantage of this mode is obvious: “boiling” and the need for constant monitoring.
Rapid battery charging
Sometimes you need a very fast recharge , almost as soon as the starter . This is not the best option for the battery, however, because of the need to use quite often.
Remove the battery, gently cleanse them . We connect terminals of the charger , strictly observing the correct polarity. The current regulator is exposed on high, turn on the timer for 15-20 minutes. In the absence of a timer – just note the time . At the end of rapid charging the battery on the car and try to start the engine. If the discharge of the battery is more than 50 %, it will be able to fully recharge on the run from the generator car. If less than – stationary charging is inevitable.
This is due to the fact that the incomplete charge density of the electrolyte is greatly reduced due to the formation of lead sulfide on the plates . And this in turn leads to clogging of pores of the active masses of battery plates and to reduce the overall area of the plates . So the end result of the so-called sulfation plates of the battery and reduce its capacity. In this case, the starter motor to turn the crankshaft will be significantly slower.
Overcharging a battery leads to abundant evolution of gas , which in turn loosens overly active material of the plates. And then there is the shedding of active material . This also implies reducing the capacity of the battery , and after a while a short circuit inside the battery banks are the same weight chipped plates. Here they are moody lead-acid batteries .
Not to buy the battery once a year on your car, take care of him , and he does not let you down at the wrong moment . If you bought a new battery , first ask the seller if you measure the density of the electrolyte. For a fully charged battery, it should be 1.27 g/cm3. Very often in the store sell batteries with a density of 1.23 years . It will not be enough for driving in the winter period. Therefore, it should be brought to the normal 1.27 . You can then put the battery on the car and drive it. But it is better to exploitation of a new battery to charge it from the charger . Before you put it on the charger , remove the fill plug. This will allow unimpeded gas goes out. And now the most important thing – it is to choose the mode of charging the battery.