The most common freons are freons R22, R407 and R410a. Previously, the most common refrigerant was single-component freon R22. Its advantages were a small price and low working pressure. However, this freon actively destroyed the ozone layer, so in the early 2000s its use was seriously limited worldwide. It was at that time that we owe the influx of air conditioners on this freon. Currently, the supply of Freon R22 is quota, which has significantly increased the price of this refrigerant.
The multicomponent freon R407 replaced R22, but did not receive distribution. The fact is that one of its components evaporated faster than the rest, as a result of which the freon lost its properties, and when replacing the refrigerant, it was necessary to drain the old freon completely before filling the air conditioner. Although it did not cause harm to the ozone layer, systems on freon R407 are practically not found.
Currently, all household air conditioners are produced under the use of freon R410a. This multicomponent freon does not destroy the ozone layer, and its components evaporate at the same rate, which simplifies the refueling procedure.
Currently, all household air conditioners have a heating function, with the exception of only low-power window and mobile air conditioners of some models. The principle of heating when using a split system is based on the principle of operation of a heat pump. Unlike an electric heater, the heat dissipation power of which is equal to the power consumed, the air conditioner at the same power consumes 3-5 times less electricity. This is due to the fact that in the air conditioner the compressor only pumps refrigerant, which carries a certain amount of heat from the room to the outside or vice versa.
It should be remembered that the operation of the air conditioner in the winter is associated with certain difficulties. A conventional air conditioner is not designed to work at an outside temperature below -3 degrees – oil can freeze in the compressor, which can lead to a breakdown of the air conditioner and expensive repairs. Inverter air conditioners work at temperatures up to -10 degrees, but for the operation of the air conditioner in conditions of low temperature, it is better to purchase a winter kit. The winter kit includes a compressor crankcase and drainage tray. With such a kit, the air conditioner can work under conditions up to -15 … -20 degrees. It should be borne in mind that in winter, the efficiency of work on heating is sharply reduced. Therefore, in severe frosts, use a heater, not an air conditioner. However, for the Belarusian climate with a long off-season period, air conditioning is very relevant.